The connection between people and plants has long been the subject of scientific research. Recent studies have found positive effects. A study conducted in Youngstown, Ohio, for example, discovered that greener areas of the city experienced less crime. In another,employees were shown to be 15% more productive when their workplaces were decorated with 。最近的研究发现了一些积极影响,在俄亥俄州扬斯敦市进行的一项研究发现,该市绿化较好的地区犯罪率较低。另一项研究显示,当员工的工作场所装饰有室内植物时,工作效率会提高15%。The engineers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT)have taken it a step further changing the actual composition of plants in order to get them to perform diverse,even unusual functions. These include plants that have sensors printed onto their leaves to show when they’re short of water and a plant that can detect harmful chemicals in groundwater. "We’re thinking about how we can engineer plants to replace functions of the things that we use every day,"explained Michael Strano, a professor of chemical engineering at ,他们改变了植物的实际成分,以便让它们实现多种多样,甚至不寻常的功能。其中包括在叶子上印上传感器,当它们缺水时可以显示的植物,还有一种可以检测地下水中有害化学物质的植物。麻省理工学院化学工程教授迈克尔·斯特拉诺解释道:“我们正在考虑如何设计出取代我们每天使用的物品功能的植物”。One of his latest projects has been to make plants grow in experiments using some common vegetables. Strano’s team found that they could create a faint light for three-and-a-half hours. The light, about one-thousandth of the amount needed to read by, is just a start. The technology, Strano said, could one day be used to light the rooms or even to turn tree into self-powered street 。斯特拉诺的团队发现,他们可以创造出持续三个半小时的微弱光线。光大约是阅读所需的千分之一,这只是一个开始。斯特拉诺说,这项技术有一天可以用来照亮整个房间,甚至可以把树变成自供电的路灯。in the future,the team hopes to develop a version of the technology that can be sprayed onto plant leaves in a one-off treatment that would last the plant’s lifetime. The engineers are also trying to develop an on and off"switch"where the glow would fade when exposed to ,一次性喷洒在植物叶子上,却可以持续植物的一生。工程师们还试图开发一种开关,当暴露在日光下时,光会消失。Lighting accounts for about 7% of the total electricity consumed in the US. Since lighting is often far removed from the power source — such as the distance from a power plant to street lamps on a remote highway — a lot of energy is lost during %。因为照明通常远离电源—从发电厂到偏远公路上路灯的距离—— plants could reduce this distance and therefore help save ,从而有助于节约能源。

高考英语理解,阅读理解分类误区

阅读理解分类误区

阅读学是当今最热门的一学科,但由于阅读活动具有明显而普遍的个人独特心理痕迹特征这个属性,也是最难以下定论的学科。以中文阅读的研究为例,迄今为止它还是没有任何权威专家能够一统天下的学科门类。鉴于此,国内外的众多阅读学专家与学者们,根据其研究和实践的角度不一,专业知识背景不同,加之阅读本身的需求及展现个性化突出,因此对阅读的分类也不尽相同。每个专家都会居于自身的条件和环境展开诠释,其分类和定义也就呈现出了“仁者见仁,智者见智”百花齐放的特征,各有特点和侧重,各具优势和长处。各种阅读分类既有其特点和优势,当然也会有其局限和盲区,需要我们在学习和运用这些阅读理论时注意区分和扬长避短。1、以阅读时是否发音为标准。

一般以阅读时是否出声音为标准,则可以分为朗读、默读和视读三类,前两类也称为音读,后一类一般称为速读。朗读(有的称诵读)即发出声音的阅读,这类阅读多半在少儿识字、读书背诵时使用,或因老师需要了解学生是否真的会读,或作检验学生阅读能力等;而默读则是表面没有发出声音,而大脑中仍然在默念阅读时的文字或符号读音的阅读,这种阅读是当今为最大多数人所熟悉并使用的阅读方法;视读即速读,它则是指完全由人的视觉器官眼睛识别后直接由大脑发生知觉的阅读方式,它的特点就是由眼睛识别后直接作用于大脑产生意义理解的阅读,整个过程极少有发生音读现象。2、以阅读速度的快慢为标准。

若以阅读时的速度快慢为标准的话,一般可以分为速读和慢读两大类。以比平常阅读速度快三倍以上的速度进行阅读的我们称为“速读”,具体也可分为“线式阅读、面式阅读、图式阅读”的整体感知为特点阅读都可以叫作“速读”。速读的阅读速度一般比慢读快三到十倍左右。慢读一般是指阅读速度在每分钟一百字到三百字之间的阅读,以速度较慢为特点的阅读类型还有“听读、朗读、默读”等多种,我们在中学小教育中常见。3、以阅读效率的高低为标准。

若以阅读理解效率的高低为标准的话,一般的阅读可分为“精读、速读、略读和泛读”四类。精读是读者对掌握阅读物要求最高的一种,这类阅读一般是用于工作、学习和考试复习中需要精确理解和记忆方面;速读则是需要从全文的从头到尾的阅读中获取有用信息的一种快速阅读方法,此种阅读的理解记忆精确度稍次于精读;而略读则重于选择重点和要点式的概要式阅读;泛读则是目的性不强的泛泛而读。4、以阅读的功能与作用为标准。

若以阅读的目的性和功能作用为标准的话,一般阅读也可分为多种。在国外,如日本、奥地利、美国等国家阅读专家研究后认为,可根据读者的动机不同,也可依据读物的性质不同,阅读大致可分为“理解性阅读、记忆性阅读、评价性阅读、创造性阅读、探测性阅读和消遣性阅读”等多种。由于阅读以个人为主体的多元性、复杂性和特殊性的特征,无论从哪个角度进行分类都具有其合理的成分和存在的依据,在阅读学的研究中同样发挥出其重要的作用,但由于分类的单一及细化,同时也不可避免地存在误区和盲点。

高考英语完形填空常考单词

高考英语完形填空常考单词 完形填空是高考英语中的一种题型,可以说是中学生最为棘手的题型之一。下面是我整理的高中英语完形填空常考单词,希望能帮到大家! 1、衣服 clothes统指各种衣服,谓语动词永远是复数 cloth指布,为不可数名词 clothing 服装的总称,指一件衣服,搭配a piece of, an article of 2、quiet, silent, still quiet 安静的,可以发出小的声音; silent 不发出声音,但可以动; still 完全不动的,静止的,不动的`(He stand there still. ) 3、before long, long before before long 不久以后; long before 很久以前; 例:not long before = before long 4、be about to, be going to, be to do when be about to 表最近的将来,后面不接时间状语; be going to 侧重打算,想法; be to do 侧重意志,计划,安排 例:I‘m to meet him.(含双方事先约好的意思) 5、bring, take, carry, fetch bring 拿来; take 带走; carry 随身携带; fetch 取,去回这一往返动作,例:fetch a box of chalk 6、参加 take part in参加(活动) =join in=participate in参加 join 参加(组织,团体) attend出席 attend to照顾 compete竞争 compete in 在……方面竞争 compete for为了……竞争 compete against 和……竞赛 7、控告 accuse sb. of sth指控某人 =charge sb. with sth控告某人做某事 8、敬佩/嫉妒 admire钦佩,羡慕,欣赏,赞美 respect尊重 show respect for对……表示尊重 respect sb for sth adore 爱慕 envy v. 嫉妒 jealous adj. 嫉妒的 in honor of为了纪念,为了向…表示敬意 9、想/考虑 think of 考虑=think about think of/consider as adj/n 把……看做 consider考虑 think over仔细考虑,慎重考虑 be concerned about担心,关心 10、in charge of, in the charge of in charge of 管理,负责照料,例:He is in charge of the matter. in the charge of 由……照料,例:The matter is in the charge of her. 15、in secret, in the secret in secret 秘密地,暗自地,偷偷地,一般用作状语; in the secret 知道内情,知道秘密,一般用作表语,My mother was in the secret from the beginning. 11、next year, the next year next year 将来时间状语; the next year 过去将来时间状语,例:He said he would go abroad the next year. 12、spend, take, pay, cost spend 人做主语,花钱,花时间,sb spend 钱/时间on sth./(in) doing sth; take 物做主语,花时间;it takes sb some time to do pay 人做主语,花钱,sb pay (money) for sth; cost 物做主语,花钱。sth cost sb 钱 13、join, join in, take part in join 加入某个组织,并成为其中的一员,例:He joined the army five years ago. join in 参加小型的活动,join sb. in take part in 参加大型的活动。 14、the doctor and teacher, the doctor and the teacher the doctor and teacher 指一个人,既是医生又是老师; the doctor and the teacher 两个人,一个医生和一个老师。 ;